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    Neurobiology of Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

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    Summary: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent disorder that is generally diagnosed on the foundation of developmentally-inappropriate as well as persistent levels of overactivity, inattention and impulsivity.

    Source: Neuropharmacology.

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent disorder that is generally diagnosed on the foundation of developmentally-inappropriate as well as persistent levels of overactivity, inattention and impulsivity. The etiology and patho-physiology of ADHD is not yet completely understood. Evidence has been found in the favor of a genetic basis for ADHD. But it is quite likely that it involves more than one gene of small individual effect.

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Apart from that differences in the dimensions of the caudate nucleus, frontal lobes, and cerebellar vermis have been depicted. Neuropsychological testing has brought forward a number of important differences between children who are diagnosed with ADHD and those without ADHD.

    These have been evidently seen to occur in two main domains: executive function and motivation. However, neither of the aforementioned factors are specific to ADHD.

    In the context of the recent advances in the neurobiology of reinforcement, psychologists concentrated on the altered reinforcement mechanisms. Among the important motivational differences, pieces of evidence purports that there might be an altered response to reinforcement. Which might play a central role in the depiction of the symptoms of ADHD. To be specific, sensitivity towards the delay of reinforcement might be accepted as a reliable finding.

    Psychologists have reviewed neurobiological mechanisms putting particular focus on the neurotransmitter dopamine and the actions of dopamine at the cellular besides the systems level.

    A detailed study depicted that dopamine cell firing activity is commonly associated with reinforcing events. This can be accounted for earlier time-points in the behavioural sequence as the reinforcement involved becomes quite predictable.

    Published: Neuropharmacology 

    Contact: Gail Tripp EG Tripp, OIST Graduate University.

    Details: Image source IStock

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